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Txhua yam koj yuav tsum paub txog spiro tebchaw

Txhua yam koj yuav tsum paub txog spiro tebchaw

Taw qhia rau Spiro sib txuas

Ib qho chaw spiro yog cov organic compound uas muaj ob lub voj voog uas muaj kev sib tw nrog sib txheeb ua ke los ntawm ib qho chaw ib leeg. Nyob rau hauv cov xwm txheej, cov lus ntawm cov rings kuj yuav zoo ib yam los yog sib txawv, thiab atom txuas ob lub ntsej muag yog hu ua spiroatom (spiral atom), feem ntau Nws yog qib 4 carbon (tseem hu ua roj carbon), thiab nws tau kuj yog silicon, phosphorus, lossis arsenic. Lub spiro atom yog feem ntau yog quaternary carbon atom. Lub spiro compound yuav siv cov quas los sau cov naj npawb ntawm cov zauv. Lub nplhaib tus xov tooj tseem muaj cov spiro atom nws tus kheej, thiab tus naj npawb tsawg yuav tsum nyob rau hauv pem hauv ntej ntawm tus naj npawb thiab sib cais los ntawm ib tug teev.

Yam tsawg kawg ntawm ob lub vias nyob hauv ib qho qauv sib piv cov pa roj carbon monoxide (hauv lwm lub tebchaw, lwm yam atoms, xws li silicon, phosphorus, arsenic, etc.). Ob lub vias nyob ntawm ob lub dav hlau mus rau ib leeg: ib lub npe sib xyaws haum raws li kev cai sib xyaw tau yog chiral thiab muaj peev xwm daws tau mus rau qhov muag isomers (saib optical isomerism). Nyob rau hauv cov nqe lus ntawm daim ntawv, propadiene H2C = C = CH2 yog qhov yooj yim spiro nplhaib, thiab ib qho pauv hloov pauv xws li 1,3-propadienediic acid yog optically nquag thiab tuaj yeem faib ua ob qho tib si isomers. lub cev.

Kev kawm

(1) Raws li lub xov tooj ntawm spiro atoms, spiro compound tau muab cais ua ib qho spiro nkaus xwb, ib qho khoom noj, ib qho kev sib tw, thiab ntau qhov chaw sib xyaw uas muaj ntau tus spiro atoms.

(2) Lub carbocyclic spiro compound thiab heterocyclic spiro compound tau muab cais tawm raws li hom lub atom yuav tsum muaj, thiab thaum carbon atom constituting carbocyclic spiro compound yog substituted los ntawm lwm cov atom, ib heterocyclic spiro compound.

(3) Raws li hom ntawm lub nplhaib, nws muaj peev xwm yuav muab faib ua saturated, unsaturated, uas muaj ntxhiab thiab aliphatic spiro sib txuas.

(4) Kev sib koom tes sib txuas lus heterospirocyclic. Lub spiro atom nyob rau hauv lub spiro compound tej zaum yuav ib cov atom atom los yog lwm yam xws li Si, N, P, d thiab cov zoo li. Yog hais tias spiro atom yog hlau atom, ib daim kab ke feem ntau yog tsim, thiab xws li ib spiro compound yog hu ua ib qho kev sib koom tes heterocyclic compound.

Polymeric spiro compound

Lub polymeric spiro compound yog ib qho ua ke ntawm ob lossis ntau tshaj qhov spiro atoms li peb lossis ntau dua ib ncig. Thaum ua npe rau ib qho chaw spiro, ib qho chaw zauv uas ntxiv cov di-, tri- tetra, tetra-, ..., etc. rau lub npe txhais tau hais tias cov naj npawb spiro uas muaj nyob nruab nrab ntawm cov rings. Lub atoms nyob rau hauv lub spiro compound tau systematically suav. Lub ntsiab lus ntawm ib hom tshuaj polyspirosyclic pib nrog lub nplhaib molecule uas txuas mus rau spiro atom, uas yog hu ua lub nplhaib dav hlau. Cov polyspirosyclic lwg me me no yuav muaj ob los sis ntau qhov dav hlau thiab txuas nrog rau ntau qhov chaw sib xyaw ua ke. Ntawm lawv, tsuas yog ib qho kauv atom yog txuas rau txhua lwm yam. Lub npe ntawm cov lus sib dhos hauv lub davhlau ya nruab ntug yog pib los ntawm lub atom ntawm tus spiro atom, hais tias suav 1, thiab cov molecule ces suav nrog pib lub molecule.

Ob tog los sis ntau lub dav hlau sab nraud, pib lub xov tooj cua dav hlau yuav muaj lwm txoj kev xaiv. Thaum tus thawj spiroatom yog numbered, tom qab spiro tebchaw yuav tsum tau txuas nrog lub me tshaj plaws spiral. Numbering. Xav tias yog ib qho compound nrog ob lub davhlau ya nyob ntev, ib qho nrog 6 atoms thiab lwm yam nrog 8 atoms. Tus lej pib nrog lub nplhaib ntawm 6 atoms, vim hais tias tom qab tus lej, tus spiroatom yuav raug suav 6. Yog hais tias lub nplhaib muaj 8 atoms pib, lub spiroatom yuav tau suav 8. Cov kev taw qhia ntawm tus xov tooj yog txiav txim los ntawm spiroatom (pib ntawm thawj spiroatom ntawm tus xovtooj uas twb dhau los lawm). Piv txwv lub kwj hluav taws atom pib numbering nyob hauv ib txoj kev, thiab yog hais tias tus zauv tsawg dua tus lej hauv lwm cov kev taw qhia, lub kwj hluav taws xob tau xaiv. Cov kev taw qhia nrog tus me xov tooj yog siv los pib lub npe. Hauv lub kauj ruam tom hauv siab, tus lej me me ntawm tus lej tsis tseem ceeb. Qee zaum, thawj ob, peb, plaub, los yog ntau dua spiroatoms yuav muab tso rau tib tug naj npawb txawm hais tias cov kev taw qhia lawv tau suav. Kev xaiv ntawm cov kev taw qhia yog xaiv los ntawm tus txheej txheem numbering thaum muaj tus nab npawb ntawm cov xov tooj sib txawv, thiab cov kev taw qhia ntawm cov xov tooj qis tsawg dua. Piv txwv, yog hais tias tus lej ntawm ib qhov kev coj, txhua tus spiroatom yog 3, 5, 7, 10, thiab tus lej ntawm spiroatoms ntawm lwm cov kev taw qhia yog 3, 5, 7, 9, tom qab ntawd tus taw tes ntawm tus thib ob raug xaiv. . Hauv qhov no, thaum thawj tus naj npawb, tus naj npawb ntawm ob kab ntim qes yog 7 thiab 10, thiab nyob rau ntawm qhov kev coj qhia zauv, 7 thiab 9. Tus lej ntawm cov ntsia hlau ciav hlau tom qab uas tsis tseem ceeb, thiab cov kev taw qhia tau raug txiav txim los ntawm kev coj ntawm tus xov tooj 9.

Hauv naming rings ntau, tus thawj naj npawb hauv cov quas zis qhia tias cov atom hauv thawj lub nplhaib ze tshaj plaws rau spiro atom yog tus naj npawb ib. Cov zauv ntxiv sawv cev tus naj npawb ntawm atoms ntawm cov spiro atoms, los yog atoms hauv lub davhlau ya nyob twg. Txhua tus naj npawb yog sib cais los ntawm ib lub sij hawm (sij hawm Askiv). Hauv qhov ua piv txwv no, muaj ob lub hlwb (suav 1 thiab 2) ua ntej lub npe spiroatom (3). Yog tsis muaj qhov atoms ntawm 3 thiab 4 spiroatoms, thiab tib yam muaj tseeb rau spiroatoms ntawm 4 thiab 5, 5 thiab 6. Muaj ob lub atoms ntawm ob lub nplhaib thib ob, 6 thiab 5, 5 thiab 4, thiab muaj ib qho ntawm 4 thiab 3.

Yog li, qhov sib lawv liag [2.0.0.0.2.1.1.1] tau. Nyob rau hauv qhov piv txwv ntawm sab xis, muaj ob lub npe spiroatoms, yog li ntawd lub npe tawm ua ntej pib. Nyob hauv thawj lub nplhaib nplhaib, muaj ob lub xuab zeb, qhia lub npe tawm [2. Tom qab ntawd, muaj ib qho thiab plaub atoms nyob rau lwm qhov ntawm lub nplhaib ntawm ob lub npe spiroatoms, pom lub npe qoob loo [2.1.3 5. Qhov thib ob spiroatom, numbered 5, tau raug ntxiv raws li ib txoj kev uas yuav muaj feem xyuam nrog cov xov tooj atoms tom qab tus naj npawb ntawm atoms hauv lub davhlau ya nyob twg, lub sij hawm kawg ntxiv 9 thiab 10 atoms ntawm 3 thiab 5 spiroatoms Thiab ces ntxiv ib qho alkane tib tus naj npawb ntawm atheists ntawm spiro compound, decane, namedispiro [2.1.3 5. 2 3] decane qhia los ntawm lub npe.

General nomenclature ntawm spiro sib txuas
Lub tshuab monospirocyclic txiav txim siab lub npe ntawm tus niam txiv cov roj carbon dioxide raws li tag nrho cov pa roj carbon atom uas muaj feem xyuam rau lub nplhaib tsim; tag nrho cov atoms hauv lub spiro nplhaib muaj cov lej hauv qhov kev txiav txim ntawm lub me nplhaib thiab lub nplhaib loj thiab cov spiro atoms yog tsawg dua; ces lawv ua raws li ntawm cov square nkhaus. Tus lej zauv ntawm tag nrho ntiv nplhaib yog suav los ntawm cov xov tooj carbon atoms sandwiched ntawm cov spiro atoms, ntxiv rau pem hauv ntej ntawm lub npe ntawm cov yeeb-tshuaj hydrocarbon sib txuas rau tag nrho cov nplhaib; cov lej yog sib cais los ntawm ib qho qis dua, hauv daim ntawv: qwj [ib, b] ib qho alkane.

Hybrid hau ntswj

Qhov cuam tshuam ntawm tus kab mob heterospiral txhais tau hais tias ob lub xaim hluav taws xob lossis cov leeg ntawm cov electron ntawm cov kev sib hloov yog nyob rau hauv cov lus tshaj tawm kom txo tau lub sij hawm ntawm lub molecule thiab txo kom tsis muaj zog ntawm sab hauv. Nyob rau hauv 1968, qhov kev tshawb nrhiav pab pawg neeg ua ntej pib npaj cov teeb meem anomeric. Thaum lawv kawm txog bicyclic acetal, lawv pom tias ob lub tebchaw hauv daim duab hauv qab no muaj 57% ntawm cis isomer thiab 43% ntawm trans isomer hauv equilibrium sib xyaw ntawm 80 C. Cis isomer ratio trans Lub isomer ruaj khov nrog ib qho qhov sib txawv ntawm 0.71 kJ / mol. Vim hais tias ntawm lub anomeric nyhuv ntawm lub cis isomer, trans isomer twb tsis xws li cov nyhuv.

Chirality

Qee cov koog qoob loo muaj qoob loo zis. Spiroatoms tuaj yeem yog chiral cov chaw, txawm tias thaum lawv tsis muaj plaub qhov chaw sib txawv uas yuav tsum tau los saib xyuas kev sib tw. Thaum ob lub nplhaib sib npaug li qub, lub CIP system muab qhov tseem ceeb tshaj plaws los txuas ntxiv rau kev txuas ntxiv ntawm ib lub nplhaib thiab lwm lub nplhaib ntawm qhov tseem ceeb dua. Nws tuaj yeem siv thaum lub nplhaib tsis zoo sib xws.

Cyclic tebchaw tau muab cais tawm los ntawm cov hauv qab no:

• Alicyclic compound

Qhov no yog ib qho organic compound uas yog ob qho tib si uas muaj aliphatic compound thiab cyclic compound. Lawv muaj ib los yog ntau dua cov kab los yog cov kaus poom tsis zoo, tab sis cov rings tsis yog muaj ntxhiab.

• Naphthenic

Raws li qhov loj ntawm lub nplhaib, naphthenes muaj peev xwm muab cais tawm mus rau hauv me me, medium thiab loj. Cyclopropane thiab cyclobutane yog suav hais tias me me. Cov cyclopentane, cyclohexane, cycloheptane, thiab cyclooctane rau cyclotridecane yog nruab nrab qhov loj me, thiab loj dua yog xav tau loj naphthenes.

Cycloolefin

Qhov no yog ib qho kev hloov qej roj carbon dioxide uas muaj ib qho carbon-carbon cov paib. Yooj yim cyclic monoolefins muaj xws li cyclopropene, cyclobutene, cyclopentene thiab cyclohexene, thaum cyclic polyenes muaj cyclopropadiene, cyclobutadiene, cyclopentadiene. Tos. Tej cov cyclic olefins, xws li cyclobuteneand cyclopentene, yuav polymerized li monomers rau daim ntawv polymers.

• Cov roj carbon dioxide

Qhov yooj yim thiab tseem ceeb tshaj plaws cov ntxhuav hydrocarbons yog benzeneand nws homologues xws li toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene thiab cov zoo li. Nyob hauv aromatics, qee qhov aromatic rings tsis tag cov qauv siv roj, tab sis cov carbon atoms hauv lawv yog hloov los ntawm nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur thiab lwm yam. Peb hu lawv heterocycles, xws li tsib yuan li furan. Lub nplhaib muaj cov pa atom thiab cov pyrrole muaj nitrogen atom.Thiophene muaj ib tug sulfur atom thiab cov zoo li.

Thiab aromatics tau muab faib ua:

• Cov roj carbon monocyclic uas muaj ntxhiab tsw
• Cov roj ntsha polycyclic uas muaj ntxhiab
Cov roj ntsha muaj ntxhiab muaj cov saw hlau zoo li feem ntau hu ua aliphatic arenes, thiab hom aliphatic cov ntxhuav hydrocarbons yog toluene, ethylbenzene, styrene, thiab cov zoo li.
• Heterocyclic compound

Nws muaj ib lub vov uas muaj ntxhiab tsw uas tsis muaj lub nplhaib heterocyclic lossis ib tug neeg hloov chaw. Ntau ntawm lawv paub lossis muaj peev xwm carcinogens. Qhov yooj yim ntawm no tshuaj yog naphthalene, nrog ob aromatic ib ncig, raws li tau zoo raws li tricyclic sib txuas ruthenium thiab phenanthrene.

Polycyclic uas muaj ntxhiab hydrocarbons yog nruab nrab, tsis muaj ncov qaumteb qab zib molecules pom nyob rau hauv thee thiab tar deposits. Lawv kuj muaj cov tshuaj organic los ntawm kev tua hluav taws tsis tag (piv txwv li, lub cav thiab lub incinerator, thaum hluav taws kub hauv cov hluav taws xob biomass, thiab lwm yam). Piv txwv, nws yog tsim los ntawm cov roj carbonaceous uas tsis tag ua hluav taws kub xws li taws, khib nyiab, roj, thiab haus luam yeeb. Kuj pom muaj nyob rau hauv cov nqaij charred.

Polycyclic uas muaj ntxhiab saum toj kab saum toj no peb lub voj voos muaj cov dej tsis tshua muaj thiab tsis tshua muaj dej nyob hauv dej. Thaum lub cev ua luaj li ntawm molecular nce, ob qho tib si solubility thiab vapor siab txo. Cov kabmob bicyclic polycyclic uas muaj ntxhiab tsw sib tov muaj teeb meem tsawg dua. Polycyclic uas muaj ntxhiab cov kabmob no yog vim li no feem ntau pom muaj nyob rau hauv cov av thiab hauv cov dej hauv cov dej thiab cua. Txawm li cas los xij, polycyclic uas muaj ntxhiab feem ntau muaj nyob rau ntawm cov cua tuaj.

Ntau cov kab mob polycyclic uas muaj ntxhiab tau muab txhais tias carcinogens. Kev soj ntsuam cov ntaub ntawv qhia tau hais tias lub sij hawm ntev raug rau cov kab mob siab tua cov kab mob hauv nruab nrab yuav ua rau mob cancer, mob ntsws cancer, mob plab thiab mob cancer. Polycyclic aromatic compounds yuav ua kom cov khoom siv nyob rau hauv lub cev, ua rau kev loj hlob ntawm cov kabmob kheesxaws thiab nce cov xwm txheej ntawm kev mob kheesxaws.

Thaum lub cev zuj zus ntxiv, lub carcinogenicity ntawm tus kab mob polycyclic aromatic tseem muaj zog, thiab cov mob toxicity yog tsawg. Ib qho chaw muaj ntxhiab hauv nruab nrog Polycyclic, Benzo [a] pyrene (Benzo [a] pyrene), yog thawj cov tshuaj carcinogen uas nrhiav tau.

Daim ntawv thov

Polymer cog qoob loo

Lub ntim ntswj ntawm lub polymer thaum lub sij hawm polymerization los yog solidification yog vim los ntawm van der Waals quab yuam ntawm lub monomer molecules nyob rau hauv cov kua hauv lub xeev los sis cov khoom uas tsis muaj kev sib txuas ntev ntev, thiab qhov kev ncua deb ntawm cov molecules loj loj; tom qab polymerization los yog crosslinking, Covalent daim ntawv tso tawm qhov chaw ntawm cov chav ua haujlwm tsuas yog ua rau poob ntawm lub ntim polymer. Nws hais tias shrinkage yog qee zaum tuag rau lub polymer, xws li ua rau kev laus zuj zus ntawm lub polymer, deformation, thiab tsawg zuj zus kev ua tau zoo. Yuav kom daws tau qhov ntim qhov teeb meem ntawm polymer curing, chemists tau ua haujlwm tsis txaus, tab sis feem ntau tsuas yog txo thiab tsis tuaj yeem tshem tawm qhov ntim ntawm qhov ntswg. Mus txog 1972, Bailey li al. tsim ib co kev ua si ntawm spiro thiab pom tias cov tebchaw no yog polymerized. Thaum twg lub ntim tsis ntsws, nws yuav ua rau ntau dua. Lub discovery ntawm nthuav monomers tau attracted lub paj ntawm ntau zaum, thiab ntau ntawm kev tshawb fawb tau raug nqa tawm. Expanded monomers tau dhau los ua cov ntaub ntawv muaj zog ua haujlwm polymer heev. Cov khoom sib xyaw structured xws li spiro orthoester thiab spiro orthocarbonate zoo expansion monomers thiab tau muab siv rau hauv kev npaj siab composites siab, kev ua haujlwm siab khi, cov ntaub ntawv biodegradable polymer thiab cov ntaub ntawv kho mob polymer. Kev hloov kho ntawm cov hom phiaj-dav hlau thiab synthesis ntawm cov oligomers uas muaj kev sib koom tes.

Electroluminescence

Txawm hais tias tsis yog ib qho organic compound emits lub teeb thiab lub wavelength ntawm lub teeb emission thiab qhov ua tau ntawm lub teeb emission tsuas yog nyob ntawm cov qauv tshuaj. Fluorescence feem ntau tshwm sim nyob rau hauv cov molecules nrog cov dav hlau dav thiab conjugated systems, uas ua rau cov nyhuv electron conjugation thiab coplanarity ntawm lub molecules, uas yog zoo los txhim kho cov fluorescence efficiency. Muaj ntau yam khoom noj khoom haus uas tsaus nti. Lub ntsiab yog: spiro nplhaib, poly-p-phenylene vinylene, polythiophene, polythiadiazole thiab cov hlau sib xyaw hlau. Ntawm lawv, spirocyclic uas muaj ntxhiab sib xyaw ua ke muaj cov tshuab loj sib txuas thiab zoo rigidity thiab sib txuas, siab iav hloov kev kub thiab siab thermal stability. Cov cuab yeej EL yog yooj yim hauv txoj kev thiab tsis siv cov khoom nyuab nyuab, vim li ntawd nws thiaj li yuav txo tau cov nqi tsim hauv lub sij hawm thiab kom yooj yim npaj cov khoom siv loj.

tshuaj tua kab

Lub nplhaib thiab cov spiro uas muaj hetero atom tsis yooj yim yog tsim tau yooj yim vim tias lawv cov tswv yim ntawm kev ua haujlwm, thiab tau txais kev saib xyuas zoo heev hauv kev tsim cov tshuaj tua kab. Piv txwv li: Rudi li al. 3,9-dichloro-2,4,8,10-tetraoxa-3,9-diphosphaspiro [5.5] undecane-3,9-dioxide thiab sulfide Hydrogen tau reacted rau synthesize tus tshiab spiro compound, 3,9-dihydro-3,9-dithio-2,4,8,10-tetraoxa-3,9-diphospho [5.5] undecane. Nws cov derivatives yog ib chav kawm tshiab ntawm cov kab mob hauv nruab nrog cev thiab herbicides, uas muaj peev xwm tshem tawm cov txiv hmab txiv ntoo, txiv hmab txiv ntoo, thiab lwm yam khoom los ntawm cov nplej, cereals, paj rwb thiab taum pauv.